11. APPENDIX D: TRANSLATOR'S WRAP-UP

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11. APPENDIX D: TRANSLATOR'S WRAP-UP


GiacNiemVeHoiTho_BMindfulness With Breathing - ­Giác Niệm Về Hơi Thở

Bhikkhu Buddhadasa

Translated from the Thai by Santikaro Bhikkhu

Thiện Nhựt phỏng dịch

Source-Nguồn: dhammatalks.net, ftp.budaedu.org, budsas.org, thuvienhoasen.org

 

____________________


APPENDIX D: TRANSLATOR'S WRAP-UP  

 

(Following Ajahn Buddhadasa's seven lectures, the translator was asked to give a summary. The emphasis was on attitudes and techniques which would help beginners get off to a correct start. This appendix is a selection of the more relevant passages, some of which have been expanded for this book.) 

 

Today, I will attempt to review and add to some of the points made by Ajahn Buddhadasa, mainly those with which our Western visitors have the most trouble and confusion. Some of these are practical hints and tips to use in establishing the practice of Anapanasati. The rest involve Right View (samma-ditthi). The more our attitude is correct, the more Anapanasati will be correct, that is, leading to the quenching of all dukkha through the end of attachment. Although I am no "meditation teacher," this information should be of practical benefit to you.  (D. 1) 

 

NATURAL EVOLUTION / INTENTIONAL PRACTICE 

 

I will begin with a distinction that is generally overlooked. When we talk about Anapanasati, we talk also about a natural evolution of the mind, of human life. This natural evolution is not the same thing as our meditation practice, although the two happen together and mutually support each other. The sixteen steps of Anapanasati are based on the contemplation of sixteen distinct ob­jects (including but not limited to the breath) while we are aware of breathing in and breathing out. In our study of life we focus on these sixteen living objects. At the same time, these sixteen objects arise naturally out of the cultivation of the mind (citta-bhavana). The mind must follow a certain path of evolution from wherever it "is" to what is called "enlightenment." For all beings this Path is fundamentally the same, a natural evolution which is both the duty and the privilege of us all. Anapanasati meditation is not that evolution itself rather Anapanasati is the studying and nurturing of that evolution. As that evolution takes place, and it has begun already, we use Anapanasati to study it and understand it. Through that understanding we can use Anapanasati to further support, nurture, and nudge that evolution along. Thus, the practice and the progress are interconnected and inseparable, but not identical.  (D. 2) 

 

People often confuse the two. We often hear, "Oh! I had rap­ture, I got piti, I had contentment, I must-be on step five." The same confusion occurs regarding most of the steps and some of us think that we are doing them all in one short sitting. The feeling of contentment, as well as the other objects, will be arising all the time, coming and going all the time as part of the natural process that is taking place. In step five, however, we only start to work with piti at the most proper time, which is after the first four steps have been fully completed and piti manifests clearly and steadily. Even while practicing step one the feelings of contentment and joy will arise. This is nothing to get excited about. We might even become aware of impermanence during step one, but that is not step thirteen unless we intentionally contemplate that impermanence. (In the case of impermanence, if it is genuine insight and not just talking to oneself, it is worth going to immediately. With the first twelve steps, however, it is best to take them patiently, one at a time.) At anyone time, we have the intention to practice one specific step or object. All other objects are to be left alone. If the mind should wander, merely note it, let go, and return to the current object with the breathing in and out. (D. 3) 

 

There is this difference between what is happening naturally and what we are practicing specifically. To summarize, on the natural side there are the sixteen objects which occur naturally whenever the conditions are present. On the practical side we systematically contemplate and train upon those sixteen things one by one. Please be clear about this. It will help you to know what you need to do and to practice efficiently. (D. 4) 

 

Another aspect of this natural evolution is that the mind evolves from cruder states of happiness to more subtle states of happiness. When we begin meditating we are still interested in rather crude kinds of happiness, usually sensual and sexual hap­piness. Through meditation we come across refined levels of joy. As citta-bhavana continues we discover even more sublime levels of bliss. Once we learn about a higher or more refined level of hap­piness, then it is quite easy to let go of coarser kinds of happiness. 

 

Thus, in this practice there is a natural progress of the mind letting go of a crude happiness through the discovery of a better happiness. Then the mind attaches to that better happiness until it finds an even higher level of joy. It can let go of what is now a lower level of happiness to enjoy the higher level. This proceeds by fits and starts until we learn that the supreme happiness is not to attach to or indulge in any form of happiness. (D. 5) 

 

ONE STEP AT A TIME, PLEASE,

 

AND START AT THE BEGINNING 

 

Anapanasati must be practiced one step at a time. We only get confused and distracted by trying to do two or more things at once. We should be satisfied with the step we are on and willing to do it right, for as long as that takes. We do not jump around from this step to that merely because we are restless, bored, or full of desires. Do not listen when you find yourself thinking, "Today I'll try all six­teen steps," or "Let's do the first tetrad this week, and the second next week, and then the third," or "What if I start with sixteen and work backward?" Don't just leaf through this book and choose a step that interests you. We must take them one by one, because Anapanasati is based on the natural evolution already described. To make the most of this natural fact, it is best to follow Anapanasati as it has been taught by the Buddha. (D. 6) 

 

Always start at the beginning. Each session starts with establishing sati on the breath and then practicing step one. After you are skilled in step one, after you know it completely and can do it with ease, then go on to step two. Practice step two until you are expert in it and have learned everything that you need to know about it. Then you can go to step three. Do not fall into the confusion of a little of step one, then a bit of step two, then some of that, and some of this. We are often impatient with where we are and want to get somewhere else. It would do us well to restrain that urge. Practice the steps one at a time and stick with each one until you are an expert in it. (D. 7) 

 

Each session is brand new (See Marker 123). Each sitting or walking period or whatever is brand new. (In fact, each breath is new!) So each session, must start with step one. Even if you were working with step three or four yesterday or before lunch, unless you have kept it going throughout the interim, you must start at the beginning as is only natural. If you have succeeded already with step one, now you must review it at the start of each session until the knowledge of it is directly here and now, rather than mere memory. Each step must be reviewed in the same way to make sure that we are expert at it right now. Depending on conditions - primarily internal - some sessions will get no farther than step one and others will get as far as our overall progress. We never know until we do it. Without expecta­tions we practice step by step, seeing what happens and learning what we can. (D. 8) 

 

This is merely the way things are. Each step depends on the previous steps. The conditions for step five are the completion of steps one through four. We are ready for step ten only when we have gone through the first nine successfully. Once we can accept things as they are, we can stop desiring that they be otherwise. By accepting the nature of these steps we can practice wisely, without impatience, boredom and frustration. (D. 9) 

 

THE MIDDLE WAY OF NON-ATTACHMENT 

 

We should always reflect that this is the cultivation and prac­tice of non-attachment. The Buddha taught only the Middle Way and Anapanasati is nothing but the Middle Way. It is neither an in­tense practice, nor can it be done without effort. It is to be done with balance. Properly, it must be a practice of non-attachment, neither detached pushing away nor egoistic clinging. Be very careful about sitting down with ideas like, "I am sitting, I am watching, I am breathing, I am meditating, I am this, that is mine, my breathing, my body, my mind, my feelings, I, I, me, me, mine, mine…" Learn to let go of these attached feelings and ideas of I and mine. Learn to stay balanced in the breathing with sati. (D. 10) 

 

We do not cling to the technique we are using, nor to its theory. We do not use it to collect mundane trivia about the breath ourselves, or anything. We do not abuse it in pursuit of attainments. Rather, we respectfully use it to develop the skills we need to have and learn the things we need to know. The only necessary thing is letting go of attachments and quenching dukkha.            (D. 11) 

 

The Middle Way is also a practice of correctness, of being perfect in the way we live. While practicing Anapanasati correctly we are living in a way that is correct. We do no harm to any creature, neither to others nor ourselves. This practice abuses no one. As we become established in this practice we are becoming familiar with a mode of being that is correct, balanced, and non-attached. We do not get caught up in these and those extremes, in any of the dualistic traps. Although this wisdom may be first developed in formal bhavana practice, it is to be brought into and perfected within the informal meditation of daily life.   (D. 12) 

 

For most of us, attachment is a long established habit. If we could drop it just like that, we would be Buddhas just like that. But most of us must work at letting go of our attachments and the habit to attach. Anapanasati is a way of letting go. We begin by letting go of our coarse attachments: attachments to the body, to pains and aches; attachments to agitation and impatience, to boredom and laziness; attachments to external disturbances and petty an­noyances. Then we find ourselves attaching to more subtle things, such as happy feelings. Once we let go of them, we attach to higher, brighter, clearer states of awareness. Let go of those and we begin to have some insight into reality and so we attach to the insights. Finally, we learn to let go of everything. In this way, Anapanasati is a systematic way to let go of successively more subtle attachments until there is no attachment left at all.    (D. 13) 

 

PATIENCE & PROGRESS 

 

Finally, let me remind us all that khanti (patience, endurance) is a necessary spiritual tool. The Buddha said: 

 

                            Khanti paramam tapo titikkha. 

 

Patient endurance is the supreme scorcher of defilement. Many of us are in the habit of judging and measuring ourselves against various standards. Some of us are competitive and judge ourselves according to others. Sometimes we judge ourselves ac­cording to the various ideals we have. Many people, when they learn about the sixteen steps of Anapanasati, judge themselves according to these steps. We foolishly think that "I am a better person when practicing step four than when practicing only step one." We all want to be good and practice step four and then five and then six. Such thinking will do nobody any good. (D. 14) 

 

Do not measure progress according to these sixteen steps. Measure progress according to the development of spiritual qualities, such as, sati, energy, understanding; confidence, calmness, friendliness, compassion, balance, and so forth. Measure it against the lessening of attachment and the disappearing of greed, anger, and delusion. These results of correct practice will be growing noticeably even during step one. Even if we stick with little old step one for the rest of our lives, if we do it properly, these qualities will grow and attachment will lessen. There will be less and less dukkha, and that is all that matters.  (D. 15) 

 

Getting to step sixteen is not so important. In fact, step one can be enough. The reality of nibbana is unconditioned and not caught within time. So you never know when it will be realized. Maybe even during step one. You need not hurry to get on to steps two or three or ten. Step one might be enough if you just do it right. Do it with patience, with balance, with clarity, with wisdom. Do it without clinging and grasping. Just do it.       (D. 16) 

 

We find that when we have more patience and endurance in our Anapanasati practice, then patience and endurance are more a part of our daily lives. They help us to live a clean, clear, calm life. So please be very, very patient. Learn to sit still. Learn to keep plugging away at step one until it is complete. And then step two. Do each step properly and do not hurry. With patience the mind will develop, it will "get somewhere." As long as there is impatience and desire to move on, you are learning little of consequence and experiencing much dukkha.     (D. 17) 

 

These are some thoughts on attitude or Right View which I can offer you: discover the natural evolution, study it systematically; always start anew, take things one step at a time; be patient; put aside expectations, desires, and demands; stay balanced; learn to identify and let go of  the attachments that creep into our practice. In short, practice to understand dukkha and to realize the end of duk­kha. Accept that nibbana is the reason for practicing Anapanasati and be delighted with our great opportunity.        (D. 18) 

 

GETTING STARTED: ESTABLISHING SATI 

 

Any practice of citta-bhavana begins with sati taking up and establishing upon the initial meditation object, so we begin by establishing sati on the breath, our first object. There are various ways of being mindful of the breath. We can arrange them progressively from coarse to subtle in a way that corresponds to the first four steps. We will describe a simple approach that should work well for most people, but you need not follow it blindly. As always, you must find what works best for you.            (D. 19) 

 

(1) Once seated comfortably, relaxed and still, feel the breathing, which now is easily noted within the quiet and still body. Direct attention to the breathing in a firm and gentle way. Maintain this watchfulness of the breathing and become familiar with both. (D. 20) 

 

(2) Note the three primary segments of each breath: beginning, middle, and end. For the inhalation these correspond to the nose, the middle of the chest, and the abdomen. For the exhalation the reverse is true, beginning at the belly and ending at the nose. Watch and wait at the nose until the incoming breath is felt there. Then skip to the middle of the chest and watch there until the breath is felt. Then skip to the abdomen and watch there until the breath is felt. Continue watching as the inhalation ends and wait for the exhalation to begin. Once the exhalation is felt at the abdomen, go to the middle of the chest, and then the nose. Observe at the nose as the exhalation ends and wait for the new inhalation to be felt, then skip to the chest, and so on. With sati note the breath at each of these points as it passes in and out, in and out. Be careful to observe patiently at each point until the breathing (the movement of the breath itself or of the organs used for breathing) is felt. Only then does the mind jump to the next point. This hopping from point to point is a relatively easy way to establish sati on the breath. It is a good way to get started. It becomes, however, somewhat crude and agitating after a while. Once we are skilled at it, we will want a more refined and peaceful way to be mindful of the breath.   (D. 21) 

 

(3) Next, we connect the three points into a continuous sweep or flow. This more closely approximates the breath itself. We call this "following, chasing, hunting, stalking." While breathing naturally, without any forcing or manipulating of the breath, sati follows the breath in and out, between the tip of the nose and the navel. Follow the breath, do not lead it. Track the succession of physical sensations - which must be felt, experienced - in and out. (See Marker 49-50).    (D. 22) 

 

(4) Once "following" becomes easy and constant, it will begin to feel unnecessarily busy and disruptive. Now we are ready for "guarding," a more peaceful way to practice sati with the breathing. By this time, a certain point in the nose will stand out. This is right where the breath is felt most clearly and distinctly. Although some people may feel that there are two points, one in each nostril, do not make things unnecessarily complicated. Simply note one point that covers both nostrils. This is the point used for guarding. We choose a point in the nose because it is more subtle, exact, and distinct. In other places such as the abdomen or chest the movements are large and coarse, which does not suit our purposes. In order to calm the breath we must use a point that is small, focused, and suitably refined. With sati, fix the citta on this point. Allow the citta to gather itself upon this point. Do so by simultaneously calming the breath and becoming more sensitive (through sati) to the increasingly more subtle sensations at the guarding point. Continue to calm the body­-conditioner until proper and sufficient samadhi develops. 

 

We can always begin with the first technique. The second and third techniques are suitable for steps one and two. Step three is best done by "following," although "guarding" can be used, also. Step four should begin with "following" and then take up "guarding." (D. 23) 

 

If at first our breaths are short and shallow, with movement in the chest only and not in the abdomen, then simply follow the breath down however far it goes. After sati is established we will relax and the breathing will become deeper. Before long we will feel movement in the abdomen. If we see that the breath is passing by many places at the same time, do not use this fact as an opportunity to complicate things. Keep it simple. A simple flow from the tip of the nose to the navel and from the navel to the tip of the nose is sufficient for our purpose. Do not look for or create complex breath patterns. Do not try to watch every separate movement at once. If we merely observe the breath it will be simple. If we spend our time thinking about the breath it is easy to get confused.   (D. 24) 

 

This is a good opportunity to emphasize that sati is not "thinking about" something. Sati is reflective attention, awareness, watchfulness, observance, scrutiny. There is no need for concepts, labels, words, and pictures. Such things only get in the way of directly experiencing the breathing in and out. We can compare "following" the breath to walking along a river. The water flows and we walk along watching it flow. We need not talk to ourselves, "river, river­, flowing, flowing - this, that - blah, blah, blah," to see the river. And if we are not careful, we stop watching the river and get lost in our words and thoughts. We do enough of that already. Why drag it into our Anapanasati practice, too? (D. 25) 

 

TRICKS TO AID SATI 

 

If it is too much of a struggle to keep the mind on the breath while following, there are some tricks or aids we can use. The first is to aim the eyes at the tip of the nose, as Ajahn Buddhadasa has explained. Do this in a relaxed and gentle way. Do not cross the eyes or create tension: That will lead only to headaches, not to sati. At first you may only be able to gaze a little beyond or in front of the nose, but as the body and face relax you will be able to gaze at the tip itself. Even when the eyelids are closed we can aim the eyes at the tip of the nose (See Marker 46-48). (D. 26) 

 

A second trick is to breathe loudly. Breathe loud enough to hear the breath. The ears, as well as the eyes, can support sati. This can be particularly useful at the beginning of a session or after a disturbance. After following gets going, we will drop the loud breathing naturally (it becomes annoying). You should try some loud breathing, however, at the beginning or whenever you find it difficult to establish sati.  (D. 27) 

 

The third trick is counting. We can gang up on the breath with the eyes, the ears; and now the intellect. Count each inhalation as it begins, one number for each breath. If the mind wanders, start over with "one." If we can count to "ten" without the mind wander­ing go back to "one" anyway. For our purpose here, a simple count of each breath is enough. The method of counting explained by Ajahn Buddhadasa serves another purpose and comes later (Marker 55). Again, once sati is established well enough counting is unnecessary and should be dropped. With training, sati becomes more subtle, alert, and natural. (D. 28) 

 

LONG & SHORT BREATHS 

 

After sati is established (techniques two or three) we begin to notice the long and short breathing. The mind still may wander some but stays with the breath enough to learn what it is like. The first and easiest quality to note is length, in terms of both time and extent of physical movement. For our purposes, an exact dividing line between short and long is not important. Become familiar with your own breathing and learn what your longest breaths and shortest breaths are like relative to each other. There is no need to compare your breaths with someone else's.    (D. 29) 

 

Generally, you will find that abdominal breathing is longer than chest breathing, that is, if abdominal breathing comes natural­ly. This is something we observe, however, it is not something we desire or seek. We are not "supposed" to breath in a certain way and we do not use Anapanasati to develop this or that way of breathing. So do not try to force abdominal breathing, the results would not be very relaxing. But should it occur naturally, you will see that it is longer, more relaxed, and healthier.      (D. 30) 

 

Should your breaths become very long, you will discover an interesting point. You may have thought it strange when Ajahn Buddhadasa said that the chest expands and the abdomen contracts with the long in-breath (Marker 58). Common sense says that the abdomen expands on the in-breath and contracts on the out-breath. The two seem to contradict each other. Which is right? First, we observe the normal breathing. As we inhale, the diaphragm drops and pushes the tummy outward. When we exhale the tummy falls in again. This is the ordinary abdominal breathing before it becomes very long. It is a simple movement of the abdomen expanding (or rising) with the in-breath and contracting (or falling) with the out-breath. Some people will consider this short and others will feel it is relatively long.      (D. 31) 

 

Now, there is a limit to how far the abdomen can expand. As we relax and breathe more deeply this limit will be reached. At that point there is, however, room left in the chest (lungs) for more air. If we continue to breathe in, the chest will then expand. This in turn pulls up and flattens the tummy. This is what Ajahn Buddhadasa meant. A very long inhalation begins just like a normal breath. The abdomen expands but the chest barely moves at all. After the abdomen's limit is reached the chest expands and the abdomen contracts. When the breath is really long you will discover this for yourself. The opposite movements (roughly) occur with the very long exhalations. So the very long breath is an ordinary breath plus more. Many of us will seldom experience this very long breathing until the body becomes very relaxed through Anapanasati. Eventually, it will happen more and more regularly - even outside the formal sittings. (D. 32) 

 

Even when sati is less than firmly established, we will be learning about the long and short breathing. Steps one and two really begin, however, when sati can follow the breath without falter­ing. Sounds, thoughts, and other phenomena may- occasionally wander through, but the mind does not get caught up in them. We are able to stay with the breath, observe it, and learn joyfully. If we are impatient to get through step one and want to move on to "more interesting things," we can check such thoughts by asking ourselves: "Is the body relaxed enough to sit like this for an hour or more, comfortably, without any desire to move?" When the breathing is truly long, it is possible to sit comfortably for long periods of time. If we are restlessly changing positions every ten or fifteen minutes, it is best to be content with step one. Learn how to sit still, relax, and allow the breath to become long, slow, gentle, and smooth. Then, we will be able to sit for long periods of time with ease. This requires self-discipline - not self-torture. Train yourself wisely, with balance. (D. 33) 

 

STEP THREE: A NEW OBJECT 

 

In steps one and two the breath is the only object of our at­tention. Beginning with step three we take up other objects, in this case "all bodies," the influence of the breaths upon the rest of the body. Note that this is not the breath itself, although the breath and its influence are closely associated. At this time, the awareness of breathing in and out moves into the background where it remains dear and constant. While the mind focuses on the new object, we always know whether we are breathing in or out. The same holds true for the rest of the sixteen steps.  (D. 34) 

 

Studying the influence of the breathing upon the body in­volves more than just long and short breaths. Length was a conve­nient way to begin. Now, we should also notice speed (fast - slow) and quality (coarse - subtle). Quality is the most important because it has the greatest influence on the calmness of the body. In this step, we will discover the kind of breathing that calms the body the most. Then, we are ready for step four.  (D. 35)

 

I have said enough to help you get started. I hope that you can use this information which we have provided to develop a wise meditation practice. Before I finish today, please allow me a final observation.  (D. 36) 

 

LIFE IS MEDITATION 

 

There is more to "meditation" (citta-bhavana, mental cultiva­tion) than sitting. Our formal sitting and walking practice is very important, and there are few people who do not need it, but we are interested, most of all, in living life - life free of dukkha. Our lives involve more than sitting and Anapanasati can help us in all those other areas of life, also. First of all, the skills and knowledge developed through formal practice can be used and expanded upon throughout our daily activities. Second, we can be aware ofif not concentrated on, the breath while performing most duties. If this is developed properly, the breath regulates the body in a state of rightness and anchors the mind in purity, stability, tranquility, clari­ty, strength, and alertness. Third, the mind can go to the breath and focus upon it when harmful mental states arise. In doing so the breath should not be treated as an escape. Nevertheless, it is often the most skillful means out of an unwholesome thought, emotion, or mood. These are just three of the ways in which we integrate Anapanasati with life as a whole. (D. 37) 

 

Even the theory of Anapanasati can be used throughout the meditation of daily life. Once we have taken the time to study and understand the sixteen steps (which may involve some supplementary reading) we need not limit their application to the breathing alone. As Ajahn Buddhadasa pointed out in Appendix B, the Satipatthana Suttas lack a dearly defined method of practice. On the other hand, we ought to work at developing the four foundations of mindfulness at every opportunity. You will see that the sixteen steps provide a general structure for all satipatthana practice. These are the sixteen things which we should contemplate at every opportunity, whenever these dhammas occur. Although most bodily pro­cesses are not open to the systematic and complete treatment we use with the breath, we can use the sixteen steps to identify the things most worthy of our attention.     (D. 38) 

 

16 STEPS TO EVERYTHING 

 

We can use any bodily activity as a basis for sati. The more necessary and central to life (like the breathing) that activity is, the better. First, get to know that activity from all angles (long - short may or may not be relevant). Second, see what influence that activity has on the flesh body. Third, find the right way to perform that activity so that it has the optimal effect on the body and allows the mind to find an appropriate degree and type of concentration. This corresponds to the first tetrad (kaya). Next, examine the feelings associated with that activity, especially the pleasant feelings that arise when the activity is done well and successfully. Study the in­fluence these feelings have on the mind, then calm that influence. This covers the second tetrad (vedana). The third tetrad (citta) begins with experiencing the different types of mind arising during that activity. Then we train to gladden, concentrate, and liberate the mind while that activity is taking place. Finally, the fourth and most important tetrad (Dhamma), is to contemplate all aspects of that ac­tivity - body, feeling, and mind - as aniccam-dukkham-anatta. Contemplate the fading away and extinction of attachment. Con­template the tossing back to nature of everything associated with the basic activity.      (D. 39)  

 

Anapanasati explains how to use everything we do as satipatthana practice. When possible, practice Anapanasati directly. Otherwise, practice it indirectly through a parallel practice. The knowledge we gain through parallel citta-bhavana will supplement and support our regular Anapanasati practice, and vice versa. Once we appreciate the possibilities inherent in the sixteen steps there will be constant opportunities to develop the citta even in the "most dif­ficult conditions." The sixteen steps - especially the first and last tetrads - are enough meditation theory to eliminate dukkha from life. May you use them well. (D. 40) 

 

We hope that you are able to use this information. We have presented it as clearly as we are able. Please study it carefully, more than a few readings may be necessary. Think it through sufficiently. Then, most importantly, try it. Through practice your understanding of these instructions will grow. You will need to make adjustments, but for the most part those adjustments will be in your own understanding and application rather than in Ajahn Buddhadasa's instructions. Try to follow his advice as well as you are able. Avoid mixing it up with things you hear from meditators using other systems. With patience, dedication, and wisdom allow this practice to deepen and lead to the understanding of non-attachment and the realization of the end of dukkha, the supreme peace and freedom of nibbana.  (D. 41) 

 

 

____________________
 
 
 
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With so many books available on Buddhism, one may ask if there is need for yet another text. Although books on Buddhism are available on the market, many of them are written for those who have already acquired a basic understanding of the Buddha Dhamma.
29 Tháng Ba 20209:50 SA(Xem: 203)
Với số sách Phật quá nhiều hiện nay, câu hỏi đặt ra là có cần thêm một cuốn nữa hay không. Mặc dù có rất nhiều sách Phật Giáo, nhưng đa số đều được viết nhằm cho những người đã có căn bản Phật Pháp. Một số được viết theo văn chương lối cổ, dịch nghĩa
28 Tháng Ba 202010:51 SA(Xem: 176)
Quan niệm khổ của mỗi người tùy thuộc vào hoàn cảnh trong cuộc sống hiện tạitrình độ nhận thức của mỗi người. Cho nên con đường giải thoát khổ của mỗi người cũng phải thích ứng theo nguyện vọng của mỗi người. Con đường giải thoát khổ này hướng dẫn
27 Tháng Ba 20203:30 CH(Xem: 166)
TRÌNH BÀY TÓM LƯỢC 4 CÕI - Trong 4 loại ấy, gọi là 4 cõi. Tức là cõi khổ, cõi vui, Dục-giới, Sắc-giới, cõi Vô-sắc-giới. NÓI VỀ 4 CÕI KHỔ - Trong nhóm 4 cõi ấy, cõi khổ cũng có 4 là: địa ngục, Bàng sanh, Ngạ quỉ và Atula. NÓI VỀ 7 CÕI VUI DỤC GIỚI -
26 Tháng Ba 20207:16 CH(Xem: 211)
Ni sư Kee Nanayon (1901-1979) là một trong những vị nữ thiền sư nổi tiếng ở Thái Lan. Năm 1945, bà thành lập thiền viện Khao-suan-luang dành cho các nữ Phật tử tu thiền trong vùng đồi núi tỉnh Rajburi, miền tây Thái Lan. Ngoài các bài pháp được truyền đi
24 Tháng Ba 20202:32 CH(Xem: 205)
Sự giải thoát tinh thần, theo lời dạy của Đức Phật, được thành tựu bằng việc đoạn trừ các lậu hoặc (ô nhiễm trong tâm). Thực vậy, bậc A-la-hán thường được nói đến như bậc lậu tận - Khināsava, bậc đã đoạn trừ mọi lậu hoặc. Chính vì thế, người đi tìm chân lý cần phải hiểu rõ những lậu hoặc này là gì, và làm cách nào để loại trừ được nó.
23 Tháng Ba 20203:56 CH(Xem: 238)
Rất nhiều sách trình bày nhầm lẫn giữa Định và Tuệ hay Chỉ và Quán, đưa đến tình trạng định không ra định, tuệ chẳng ra tuệ, hoặc hành thiền định hóa ra chỉ là những “ngoại thuật” (những hình thức tập trung tư tưởng hay ý chímục đích khác với định nhà Phật), và hành thiền tuệ lại có kết quả của định rồi tưởng lầm là đã chứng được
22 Tháng Ba 20209:08 CH(Xem: 211)
Everyone is aware of the benefits of physical training. However, we are not merely bodies, we also possess a mind which needs training. Mind training or meditation is the key to self-mastery and to that contentment which brings happiness. Of all forces the force of the mind is the most potent. It is a power by itself. To understand the real nature
21 Tháng Ba 20209:58 CH(Xem: 235)
Chúng ta lấy làm phấn khởi mà nhận thấy rằng hiện nay càng ngày người ta càng thích thú quan tâm đến pháp hành thiền, nhất là trong giới người Tây phương, và pháp môn nầy đang phát triễn mạnh mẽ. Trong những năm gần đây, các nhà tâm lý học khuyên
20 Tháng Ba 20208:30 CH(Xem: 205)
Bốn Sự Thật Cao Quý được các kinh sách Hán ngữ gọi là Tứ Diệu Đế, là căn bản của toàn bộ Giáo Huấn của Đức Phật và cũng là một đề tài thuyết giảng quen thuộc. Do đó đôi khi chúng ta cũng có cảm tưởng là mình hiểu rõ khái niệm này, thế nhưng thật ra thì ý nghĩa của Bốn Sự Thật Cao Quý rất sâu sắc và thuộc nhiều cấp bậc
17 Tháng Ba 20205:51 CH(Xem: 335)
Mindfulness with Breathing is a meditation technique anchored In our breathing, it is an exquisite tool for exploring life through subtle awareness and active investigation of the breathing and life. The breath is life, to stop breathing is to die. The breath is vital, natural, soothing, revealing. It is our constant companion. Wherever we go,
16 Tháng Ba 20204:16 CH(Xem: 320)
Giác niệm về hơi thở là một kỹ thuật quán tưởng cắm sâu vào hơi thở của chúng ta. Đó là một phương tiện tinh vi để thám hiểm đời sống xuyên qua ý thức tế nhị và sự điều nghiên tích cực về hơi thởđời sống. Hơi thở chính là đời sống; ngừng thở là chết. Hơi thở thiết yếu cho đời sống, làm cho êm dịu, tự nhiên, và năng phát hiện.
15 Tháng Ba 202012:00 CH(Xem: 260)
Phật giáođạo Phật là những giáo lý và sự tu tập để dẫn tới mục tiêu rốt ráo của nó là giác ngộgiải thoát khỏi vòng luân hồi sinh tử. Tuy nhiên, (a) mọi người thế tục đều đang sống trong các cộng đồng dân cư, trong các tập thể, đoàn thể, và trong xã hội; và (b) những người xuất gia dù đã bỏ tục đi tu nhưng họ vẫn đang sống tu
13 Tháng Ba 20209:16 CH(Xem: 246)
Người ta thường để ý đến nhiều tính cách khác nhau trong những người hành thiền. Một số người xem thiền như là một thứ có tính thực nghiệm, phê phán, chiêm nghiệm; những người khác lại tin tưởng hơn, tận tâm hơn, và xem nó như là lí tưởng. Một số có vẻ thích nghi tốt và hài lòng với chính mình và những gì xung quanh,
12 Tháng Ba 20209:36 SA(Xem: 365)
Kinh Đại Niệm Xứ - Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna được xem là bài kinh quan trọng nhất trên phương diện thực hành thiền Phật giáo. Các thiền phái Minh Sát, dù khác nhau về đối tượng quán niệm, vẫn không xa khỏi bốn lĩnh vực: Thân, Thọ, Tâm, và Pháp mà Đức Phật
10 Tháng Ba 20202:09 CH(Xem: 331)
Giới học thiền ở nước ta mấy thập niên gần đây đã bắt đầu làm quen với thiền Vipassanā. Số lượng sách báo về chuyên đề này được dịch và viết tuy chưa nhiều lắm nhưng chúng ta đã thấy tính chất phong phú đa dạng của Thiền Minh Sát hay còn gọi là Thiền Tuệ hoặc Thiền Quán này. Thiền Vipassanā luôn có một nguyên tắc nhất quán
10 Tháng Ba 202010:20 SA(Xem: 321)
Trong tất cả các thiền sư cận đại, bà Achaan Naeb là một thiền sư đặc biệt hơn cả. Bà là một nữ cư sĩ đã từng dạy thiền, dạy đạo cho các bậc cao tăng, trong đó có cả ngài Hộ Tông, Tăng thống Giáo hội Tăng già Nguyên thủy Việt Nam cũng đã từng theo học thiền với bà một thời gian. Năm 44 tuổi, Bà đã bắt đầu dạy thiền
08 Tháng Ba 202011:08 SA(Xem: 273)
A.B.: Đầu tiên, khi họ hỏi Sư: “Sư có muốn nhận giải thưởng này không?” và Sư đã đồng ý. Nhưng phản ứng đầu tiên ngay sau đó là: “Tại sao Sư lại muốn nhận giải thưởng này? Sư là một nhà Sư Phật Giáo, đây là việc một nhà Sư (cần phải) làm. Là một nhà Sư, chúng ta đi truyền giáo, đi phục vụ, và chúng ta không nhất thiết phải đòi hỏi
07 Tháng Ba 20205:16 CH(Xem: 350)
Biên tập từ các bài pháp thoại của ngài Thiền sư Ajahn Brahmavamso trong khóa thiền tích cực 9 ngày, vào tháng 12-1997, tại North Perth, Tây Úc. Nguyên tác Anh ngữ được ấn tống lần đầu tiên năm 1998, đến năm 2003 đã được tái bản 7 lần, tổng cộng 60 ngàn quyển. Ngoài ra, tập sách này cũng đã được dịch sang tiếng Sinhala
02 Tháng Mười Hai 201910:13 CH(Xem: 715)
Nhật Bản là một trong những quốc gia có tỉ lệ tội phạm liên quan đến súng thấp nhất thế giới. Năm 2014, số người thiệt mạng vì súng ở Nhật chỉ là sáu người, con số đó ở Mỹ là 33,599. Đâu là bí mật? Nếu bạn muốn mua súng ở Nhật, bạn cần kiên nhẫnquyết tâm. Bạn phải tham gia khóa học cả ngày về súng, làm bài kiểm tra viết
12 Tháng Bảy 20199:30 CH(Xem: 2300)
Khóa Tu "Chuyển Nghiệp Khai Tâm", Mùa Hè 2019 - Ngày 12, 13, Và 14/07/2019 (Mỗi ngày từ 9:00 AM đến 7:00 PM) - Tại: Andrew Hill High School - 3200 Senter Road, San Jose, CA 95111
12 Tháng Bảy 20199:00 CH(Xem: 3692)
Các Khóa Tu Học Mỗi Năm (Thường Niên) Ở San Jose, California Của Thiền Viện Đại Đăng
03 Tháng Tư 202011:37 CH(Xem: 114)
Có thể nói, sự hiểu biết quan trọng nhất trong cuộc sống là sự hiểu biết về bản chất thực của hiện hữu, một sự hiểu biết có thể trả lời được những câu hỏi sau một cách hợp lý: - Tại sao chúng ta sanh ra? - Chúng ta đi vào hiện hữu hiện nay như thế nào? - Điều quan trọng nhất phải làm trong cuộc đời này là gì? - Thế nào là chết?
30 Tháng Ba 20209:02 CH(Xem: 195)
With so many books available on Buddhism, one may ask if there is need for yet another text. Although books on Buddhism are available on the market, many of them are written for those who have already acquired a basic understanding of the Buddha Dhamma.
29 Tháng Ba 20209:50 SA(Xem: 203)
Với số sách Phật quá nhiều hiện nay, câu hỏi đặt ra là có cần thêm một cuốn nữa hay không. Mặc dù có rất nhiều sách Phật Giáo, nhưng đa số đều được viết nhằm cho những người đã có căn bản Phật Pháp. Một số được viết theo văn chương lối cổ, dịch nghĩa
04 Tháng Ba 20209:20 CH(Xem: 363)
Chàng kia nuôi một bầy dê. Đúng theo phương pháp, tay nghề giỏi giang. Nên dê sinh sản từng đàn. Từ ngàn con đến chục ngàn rất mau. Nhưng chàng hà tiện hàng đầu. Không hề dám giết con nào để ăn. Hoặc là đãi khách đến thăm. Dù ai năn nỉ cũng bằng thừa thôi
11 Tháng Hai 20206:36 SA(Xem: 535)
Kinh Thập Thiện là một quyển kinh nhỏ ghi lại buổi thuyết pháp của Phật cho cả cư sĩ lẫn người xuất gia, hoặc cho các loài thủy tộc nhẫn đến bậc A-la-hán và Bồ-tát. Xét hội chúng dự buổi thuyết pháp này, chúng ta nhận định được giá trị quyển kinh thế nào rồi. Pháp Thập thiện là nền tảng đạo đức, cũng là nấc thang đầu
09 Tháng Hai 20204:17 CH(Xem: 520)
Quyển “Kinh Bốn Mươi Hai Chương Giảng Giải” được hình thành qua hai năm ghi chép, phiên tả với lòng chân thành muốn phổ biến những lời Phật dạy. Đầu tiên đây là những buổi học dành cho nội chúng Tu viện Lộc Uyển, sau đó lan dần đến những cư sĩ hữu duyên.
01 Tháng Hai 202010:51 SA(Xem: 727)
“Kinh Chú Tâm Tỉnh Giác” là một trong hai bài kinh căn bảnĐức Phật đã nêu lên một phép luyện tập vô cùng thiết thực, cụ thể và trực tiếp về thiền định, đó là phép thiền định chú tâm thật tỉnh giác và thật mạnh vào bốn lãnh vực thân xác, cảm giác, tâm thức và các hiện tượng tâm thần từ bên trong chúng.
31 Tháng Giêng 20207:00 SA(Xem: 900)
“Kinh Chú Tâm vào Hơi Thở” là một trong hai bài kinh căn bảnĐức Phật đã nêu lên một phép luyện tập vô cùng thiết thực, cụ thể và trực tiếp về thiền định, đó là sự chú tâm thật mạnh dựa vào hơi thở. Bản kinh này được dịch giả Hoang Phong chuyển ngữ từ kinh Anapanasati Sutta (Trung Bộ Kinh, MN 118).
24 Tháng Giêng 20208:00 SA(Xem: 6035)
Phước lành thay, thời gian nầy vui như ngày lễ hội, Vì có một buổi sáng thức dậy vui vẻhạnh phúc, Vì có một giây phút quý báu và một giờ an lạc, Cho những ai cúng dường các vị Tỳ Kheo. Vào ngày hôm ấy, lời nói thiện, làm việc thiện, Ý nghĩ thiện và ước nguyện cao quý, Mang lại phước lợi cho những ai thực hành;